Genomics meaning and Proteomics

This article will address genomics meaning, types of genomics, the future of genomics, proteomics meaning and types.

Genomics meaning

The term genomics was coined from the word genome by H.Winkler in the year 1920, and it is the study of molecular organization of genome, their information contents and the gene products they encode.

Types of Genomics

Genomics is categorized into three types, these are;

1.     Structural Genomics:

This deals with DNA sequencing, sequence assembly, organization and management. Structural genomics is the starting stage of genome analysis.

2.     Functional Genomics

This is the study of function of all gene sequences and their expression in an organism. It is based on systematic study of a single gene or protein to all genes or proteins. Functional genomics provides extensive information about the genome.

3.     Comparative Genomics

This is a field of biological research in which researchers use a variety of tools to compare the complete genome sequences of different species. The study of comparative genomics is a powerful approach for achieving a better understanding of the genomics and, subsequently of the biology of the respective organisms.

Future of Genomics

In recent times, the use of genomics in agriculture has affected crop and food production positively, by improving on sustainable agricultural practices through enhancement processes such as phosphate solubilization and biopesticides, etc.

It is now used in the study of variation in drugs metabolising enzymes and how individuals respond to metabolism.

There is improvement also in the techniques for microbial production of methane and other fuel, as well as It also help in bioremediation of hazardous wastes.

It also provides insights into pathogenicity and suggest the appropriate treatments for infectious diseases. 

Genomics meaning, Future of Genomics, Types of Proteomics,  Proteomics and genomics, Proteomics meaning, proteomics is the study of,


Proteomics meaning

Proteomics is the identification, analysis and large scale characterization of proteome (which is the total protein components) expressed by any given cells, tissues and organs under the defined conditions.

In other word, we can say proteomics is the study of protein in larger scale.

The major objectives of proteomics are to characterize post-transcriptional modifications in protein, and to prepare 3D map of a cell indicating the exact location of protein.

What is Proteome?

The term proteome is used to describe the total set of protein expressed from the transcriptome of cell. But the term proteome has been devised to describe the proteins specified by genome of an organism.

Proterome is a complex term which includes all the variants of a single gene product that are produced from alternative splicing of transcribed RNA and from post-transcriptional modification of a single protein product.

Types of Proteomics

There are many types of proteomics, these are;

1.     Expression Proteomics

This is the quantitative study of protein expression between the samples which differ by some variables.

2.     Structural Proteomics

This deals with the study of structure and nature of protein complexes present in a particular cell organelle. To accomplish this objective, specific sub-cellular organelles or all protein complexes are isolated.

3.     Functional Proteomics

Can be said as the use of proteomics methods for analysis of properties of molecular networks formed in a living cell. It is a complex term which embraces all proteomics approaches related to devising its functions.

Conclusion:

Genomics and Proteomics are very important aspects of science and medicine today, and we have seen the role they played during the heat of the corona virus pandemic, in discovering more sensitive diagnostic tests, new antibiotics and covid-19 vaccines in a short period of time in order to save mankind from extinction. 
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